WINNIPEG — Within the 24 hours earlier than the disappearance of Tina Fontaine, a 15-year-old from the Sagkeeng First Nation in Canada, she was seen by provincial youngster welfare staff, law enforcement officials and well being care professionals.
Then she was discovered lifeless, dumped in Manitoba’s Purple River, and wrapped in a plastic bag and cover weighed down with 25 kilos of rocks.
“Canada and the system failed Tina at each step,” Thelma Favel, the great-aunt who raised her, mentioned on a latest day from her small dwelling in Powerview, a sleepy city on Lake Winnipeg close to the reserve of the Sagkeeng First Nation. “Why are so a lot of our ladies dying?”
Many in Canada have been asking that query.
Tina’s demise in 2014 — and the acquittal of a white man in her killing — was one in all an growing variety of deaths and disappearances of Indigenous girls and ladies that has shocked Canadians lately. The violence galvanized the federal government of Prime Minister Justin Trudeau to open a $54 million nationwide inquiry three years in the past that promised to get on the root causes of the violence.
A part of Mr. Trudeau’s pledge to beat many years of “humiliation, neglect and abuse” of Indigenous populations, and to reconcile with them, the inquiry heard testimony from almost 1,500 households of victims and survivors in typically emotional hearings throughout the nation.
Its findings are to be made public on June three, and its chief commissioner Marion Buller, a distinguished Indigenous choose, not too long ago hinted that it might embrace, amongst different issues, suggestions that homicides of Indigenous girls routinely be handled as first-degree homicide. Legislation enforcement can be anticipated to be referred to as to account.
However some Indigenous advocates have mentioned that, nonetheless good its intentions, the inquiry has been marred by an absence of transparency and poor communication with households of victims.
“Justin Trudeau is attempting to place rose-colored glasses on a really darkish chapter of Canadian historical past,” mentioned Kim O’Bomsawin, an Indigenous filmmaker whose documentary “Quiet Killing” examines violence towards Indigenous girls. “That is simply extra phrases.”
But even earlier than its launch, the inquiry has been forcing a nationwide reckoning.
Among the many circumstances attracting renewed scrutiny is that of Cindy Gladue, a 36-year-old Indigenous intercourse commerce employee and mom of three who bled to demise in a tub in an Edmonton motel room in June 2011; the person accused of her killing, Bradley Barton, an Ontario truck driver, was acquitted by an all-white jury.
Human rights advocates say Ms. Gladue was dehumanized throughout Mr. Barton’s trial, together with having her preserved pelvis launched as proof.
After the Alberta Court docket of Attraction ordered a retrial in 2017, Mr. Barton appealed the choice to Canada’s Supreme Court docket, which dominated on Friday that he ought to be retried for manslaughter. Justice Michael Moldaver wrote that the felony justice system has let Ms. Gladue down.
The violence towards Indigenous women and girls, specialists say, is deeply rooted in Canada’s historical past.
From the 1870s till 1996, Canada pressured 1000’s of Indigenous kids to go to residential colleges in an effort to suppress their language and tradition. Many confronted bodily, sexual and psychological abuse.
The trauma from this historical past has contributed, specialists say, to persistently excessive charges of poverty, drug abuse, alcoholism, home violence and suicide.
Cindy Blackstock, a professor of social work at McGill College, who’s director of the First Nations Youngster and Household Caring Society of Canada, mentioned different issues have been chronically underfunded social companies for susceptible women and girls and an absence of academic alternatives.
The violence has been unrelenting. Some 1,181 Indigenous girls have been killed or went lacking throughout the nation between 1980 and 2012, based on a 2014 report by the Royal Canadian Mounted Police.
That quantity has since risen and Patricia Hajdu, who served as minister for the standing of ladies, has estimated that it might be as excessive as four,000 since lots of the circumstances go unreported. The police have estimated that 10 p.c of lacking girls within the nation are Indigenous.
Winnipeg, whose title is derived from the Cree phrases for “murky water,” has the most important Indigenous inhabitants in Canada.
That’s the place Tina Fontaine’s life got here to an finish.
Her historical past in some ways displays the cycle of violence affecting Indigenous communities. Her paternal grandfather was despatched to a residential faculty, and have become an alcoholic. Her mom, who turned a ward of the state as a toddler, finally joined the intercourse commerce.
Ms. Favel mentioned the kid was “doomed earlier than she was born.” Her mom was 12 when she started relationship her father, who was then 23. After their chaotic relationship fell aside and Tina’s father was stricken with most cancers, Tina and her sister Sarah went to dwell along with her.
Ms. Favel mentioned Tina was a cheerful lady who confirmed promise. She preferred math and dancing, and tv crime reveals. She aspired to be a social employee.
However at 12, the lady’s father, who solely had 4 months to dwell, was overwhelmed to demise in an argument with two males over $60.
Despairing, she started to skip faculty, smoke pot and reduce herself. She bought a tattoo with two angel wings and her father’s title on her again. When requested to put in writing a sufferer’s impression assertion throughout the trial of her father’s killers, she fell aside.
“She stored crumpling the paper and mentioned she couldn’t do it,” recalled Ms. Favel, on whose lounge wall hangs a portray of Tina, waifish with huge brown eyes.
In June 2014, Tina left Ms. Favel’s dwelling and went to Winnipeg, about 75 miles away, to go to her mom. Ms. Favel gave her $50 and a pay as you go cellphone card, telling her to name if she needed to come back dwelling. The decision by no means got here.
As an alternative, she mentioned, the lady texted pictures of herself with a black eye to her sister, saying that their mom, who was working within the intercourse commerce, had overwhelmed her. Alarmed, Ms. Favel mentioned she reached out to 3 Manitoba household companies businesses, which bickered over who was accountable.
Ultimately, Tina was positioned by youngster and household companies in a collection of native motels, from which she ran away. She started residing on the streets in Winnipeg’s impoverished north finish.
A lacking particular person’s report was filed with Winnipeg police. On two events on Aug. 1, 2014, she was turned away from metropolis shelters, based on a March report by the Manitoba Advocate for Kids and Youth, which famous she was susceptible to sexual exploitation.
On Aug. eight, Winnipeg police pulled over a truck through which Ms. Fontaine was driving with an intoxicated man. The lady was allowed to go regardless of being the topic of a lacking particular person’s report.
Later that day, she was discovered unconscious in a again alley. After being hospitalized, testing optimistic for medication and telling a case employee she was spending time with a a lot older drug person referred to as Sebastian, she was discharged and positioned at a Finest Western Lodge in Winnipeg’s gritty downtown.
The advocate’s report famous that the kid abuse unit of the Winnipeg Police ought to have intervened. As an alternative, Ms. Fontaine left the lodge on her personal.
After Ms. Fontaine was discovered lifeless within the Purple River, the police arrested Sebastian, whose actual title is Raymond Cormier. The New Brunswick native had 92 earlier convictions, together with assault with a weapon and drug possession.
Throughout an elaborate sting operation, the police bugged his condominium and recorded him. Prosecutors mentioned the recordings confirmed he had needed to have intercourse with Ms. Fontaine and had been enraged after discovering she was 15 years previous.
“I drew the road and that’s why she bought killed,” he was overheard saying.
The court docket additionally heard that Mr. Cormier had owned the identical kind of cover that was wrapped round Tina’s physique.
However the post-mortem failed to find out explanation for demise and there was no proof of sexual assault and no forensic proof linking Mr. Cormier to the crime. In February 2018, Mr. Cormier was acquitted of second-degree homicide, spawning outrage and protests throughout the nation.
Guests repeatedly pay tribute to Tina at a makeshift memorial of pink roses and pictures close to the dock the place her physique was discovered. On a latest day, a card mentioned: “sleeping magnificence.”
Ms. Fontaine’s legacy can be felt in different methods.
After her demise, volunteers routinely dredge the Purple River searching for the our bodies of lacking and murdered Indigenous girls and ladies.