JAKARTA, Indonesia — Joko Widodo, the Muslim president of Indonesia, is into heavy steel and saving Christians.
Earlier in his political profession, he helped to shelter ethnic Chinese language Christians throughout lethal rioting. And upon profitable the presidency in 2014, Mr. Joko crammed his cupboard with girls and banned a radical Islamic group that requires Islamic regulation to interchange Indonesia’s democracy. His election was seen as a victory for the reasonable Islam that has lengthy flourished on this nation.
However this time round, as he runs for re-election on Wednesday in opposition to a pugnacious former common who has embraced the language of hard-line, Center Japanese Islam, Mr. Joko is veering rightward.
At a Saturday marketing campaign rally, he pointedly gave due to Muslim preachers, and on Sunday he visited Mecca. For his vice-presidential working mate, Mr. Joko selected Ma’ruf Amin, the 76-year-old head of the Indonesian Ulema Council, which has issued fatwas in opposition to homosexuality and the sporting of Santa hats by Muslims. No hip-gyrating conventional dancing, no premarital intercourse and positively no headbanging heavy steel allowed.
Practically 5,000 miles from the birthplace of Islam, Indonesia, the nation with the biggest Muslim inhabitants on the planet, has been broadly seen as proof that Islam and democracy can coexist and prosper.
“Indonesia is a rustic with greater than 260 million folks, with a geographical space of a minimum of 17,000 islands,” Lukman Hakim Saifuddin, Indonesia’s minister of spiritual affairs, mentioned in an interview. “Folks nonetheless treasure and respect the variety, the variations.”
But because the Muslim world has wrestled with Islam’s position in trendy society, Indonesia, too, has engaged in a nationwide religious reckoning. In recent times, the nation’s Muslim majority has embraced extra overt indicators of religiosity and shifted towards Arab-style devotion: flowing garments and veils, Arabic names and Center Japanese devotional structure.
Most of all, a puritanical Salafist interpretation of Islam, which pulls inspiration from the age of the Prophet Muhammad, is attracting followers in Indonesia. Bureaucrats steeped in austere Wahhabism draw converts in authorities prayer halls. A whole bunch of Indonesians joined the Islamic State in Syria and Iraq, and a whole lot of hundreds extra cheer for the group on social media.
Pushed apart are the syncretic traditions that had been lengthy the hallmark of Indonesian Islam, a mixing with indigenous beliefs that gave the religion its distinct native taste.
“In Indonesia, Salafi ideology has penetrated city and rural, civil servants and villagers,” mentioned Din Wahid, a theologian at Syarif Hidayatullah State Islamic College who has studied the rise of puritanical Islam in Indonesia. “They see corruption throughout them and say that it is just Shariah and restoring a caliphate that can be capable of repair society.”
Mr. Joko’s opponent within the election on Wednesday, Prabowo Subianto — the European-educated son of a Christian and a connoisseur of high-quality wines — could appear an unlikely figurehead for hard-line Islam. However he’s an astute politician who has shouted for jihad and vowed to welcome residence from self-imposed exile Rizieq Shihab, the top of the Islamic Defenders Entrance, which gained notoriety for attacking nightclubs in Jakarta, the capital, and calling for Shariah regulation.
“Political Islam has strengthened tremendously over the past 20 years in Indonesia,” mentioned Andreas Harsono, an Indonesia researcher for Human Rights Watch and writer of the brand new guide “Race, Islam and Energy.” “We needs to be very involved as a result of either side within the marketing campaign have now made human rights and democracy decline.”
Religion politics exploded in late 2016 when hundreds of thousands of Indonesians marched within the streets of Jakarta to protest what they thought of blasphemous language from Basuki Tjahaja Purnama, a Christian who was then the Jakarta governor. Mr. Ma’ruf, Mr. Joko’s stunning selection of working mate this yr, was one of many drivers of these protests.
Mr. Basuki, broadly often called Ahok, was jailed for 20 months. Mr. Joko declined to defend his former deputy.
“Ahok’s downfall was due to populism, like Trump or Brexit,” mentioned Zuhairi Misrawi, a researcher for Nahdlatul Ulama, the world’s largest Islamic social group, which promotes reasonable Islam. “Now, political events are aiming to get extra votes by displaying how Islamic they’re, and it’s altering our Indonesian political id.”
Even Mr. Lukman, the non secular affairs minister beneath Mr. Joko, tries to string the needle on the position of religion in Indonesian society. “Indonesia will not be formally an Islamic state,” he mentioned, sitting in an workplace embellished solely with Muslim artwork. “However Indonesia can also be not a secular state.”
Islam arrived in Indonesia via Arab and Indian retailers. By the 16th century, the religion had displaced but additionally cross-pollinated with Buddhism, Hinduism and animist faiths.
Most Muslims right here nonetheless apply a fusion type of the religion. Conventional Indonesian mosques had thatched or pitched roofs, paying homage to Hindu temples. Indonesian Muslim festivals characteristic choices of flowers to volcanoes. The nationwide costume for girls features a lacy, body-hugging shirt.
Starting within the 1980s, Saudi cash started altering the look of Islam in Indonesia. Open-air mosques had been changed by marble, domed edifices. As we speak, hundreds of mosques across the nation bear Center Japanese motifs testifying to their Saudi, Qatari or Kuwaiti funding.
“Our responsibility to Islam is to comply with the true, pure path that isn’t spoiled by native traditions,” mentioned Dharma Gesuri Wallad, who used to stay in the US however now worships at a South Jakarta mosque marked by a big black dice, just like the one in Mecca, atop an outdated shopping center. “Folks from right here, they see an Islamic preacher with a beard, they usually assume it’s stunning. However within the U.S., they assume we’re all terrorists.”
Maybe probably the most influential Saudi funding in Indonesia is the Institute for the Examine of Islam and Arabic, identified by the Indonesian acronym Lipia, the place lessons are segregated by gender and educate the fundamentalist Wahhabi theology that dominates in Saudi Arabia.
“Regardless that Indonesian Islam is a syncretic, cultural Islam, we’re taught that something from Saudi, the nation of Mecca and Medina, should be genuine and good,” mentioned Ulil Abshar Abdalla, the coordinator of the Liberal Islam Community, who studied at Lipia.
The college has produced a few of Indonesia’s most famous Islamic students. But it surely has additionally nurtured militants linked to terrorist assaults throughout Southeast Asia. Over the previous two years, Lipia has expanded throughout the nation, opening a minimum of three new campuses in a rustic with a scarcity of universities.
In December, the previous Saudi ambassador to Indonesia, Osama Mohammad Abdullah al-Shuaibi, referred on Twitter to the reasonable Nahdlatul Ulama, which has a minimum of 50 million members, as a “deviant group” that was insufficiently pious. The month earlier than, he spoke approvingly of Mr. Rizieq displaying in Mecca the black flag related to the Islamic State.
Extra mainstream Indonesian Muslim leaders resent the inroads that Saudi-inspired Salafism has made right here.
“Wahhabism is in opposition to our tradition, and our faith is completely completely different from the Center East,” mentioned Mr. Zuhairi of Nahdlatul Ulama, who helps arrange a web based presence to compete in opposition to the puritanical web sites common with younger Indonesians.
“Our struggle is to get reasonable Islam to battle for millennial Muslims who’re hungry for Islam,” he mentioned. “However folks don’t see us as passionate, as charismatic. It’s laborious to alter this.”
The flowering of a extra conservative Islam in Indonesia accelerated after the overthrow of Suharto in 1998, after greater than three many years of corrupt, dictatorial rule. What adopted was a federalist exuberance that gave native governments newfound authority. The province of Aceh, for instance, is now beneath Shariah, with public flogging for adulterers or those that drink alcohol.
“Salafism is a magnet for folks as a result of it’s quite simple and simple to grasp,” mentioned Mr. Ulil of the Liberal Islam Community. “It gives the look that it’s primarily based on prophetic, pure scripture whereas others, like us, will not be authoritative.”
When Zaenal Abidin began constructing a Salafist group on the outskirts of Jakarta in 1998, three households joined him. Now there are 300, lots of them middle-class authorities staff, who ship their youngsters to Mr. Zaenal’s Islamic faculty.
“We had been colonized for therefore lengthy by Christians, so we’ve an inferiority complicated,” he mentioned. “However it is a nation with the world’s largest variety of Muslims, so we should present our true Islamic nature.”
On the age of 11, ladies in Mr. Zaenal’s commune start sporting the niqab, which leaves solely eyes and arms seen. “Earlier than, folks used to take a look at me surprisingly,” mentioned Khaulah, a trainer. “Now extra persons are sporting correct garments so I don’t get stared at anymore.”
Because it has elsewhere within the Muslim world, conservative costume has grow to be extra widespread in Indonesia, with girls adopting the veil and males sporting longer beards.
Polygamy and baby marriage are additionally on the rise in Indonesia, as democracy has allowed private freedoms repressed through the Suharto period to prosper.
“Radical teams perceive that they’ll use democracy to their benefit,” mentioned Musdah Mulia, a professor of Islamic political thought at Syarif Hidayatullah State Islamic College. “They are saying that democracy is dangerous as a result of it permits infidels to have a vote, however then they manipulate it for themselves.”