The slaughter on Saturday of greater than 130 Fulani herdsmen in central Mali, allegedly by members of the Dogon ethnic group, is the most recent and most dangerous incident in an more and more violent battle.
In 2018, 202 civilians have been killed in communal violence in 42 incidents in Mali’s Mopti area, in line with New York-based group Human Rights Watch.
Whereas there have been conflicts between the extra settled Dogon individuals and the Fulani herders in central Mali for a very long time, they’ve develop into more and more violent since a militant Islamist rebellion within the north of the nation in 2012.
The federal government appeared accountable the Dogon self-defence group, Dan Na Ambassagou, for Saturday’s assault and has outlawed it, although the group has denied any involvement.
Who’re the Dogon?
The Dogon individuals, who largely practise settled agriculture, have lived within the Bandiagara escarpment in central Mali for hundreds of years.
Properties carved into the limestone rock and the structure, in addition to the normal lifestyle, led to the escarpment being declared a World Heritage Web site 30 years in the past.
The area had been attracting a rising variety of vacationers till the rebellion started within the north in 2012.
Who’re the Fulani?
The Fulani, recognized in Mali because the Peulh, are a largely Muslim ethnic group of semi-nomadic herders.
Numbering at the very least 38 million, they’re unfold throughout West Africa, from Senegal within the west to the Central African Republic.
Some have settled in cities however those that proceed to herd cattle can vary throughout huge distances and have at occasions come into battle with agricultural communities.
In Nigeria, there has additionally been the same cycle of violence between Fulanis and settled farmers, which in 2014 was stated to have been the fourth most dangerous battle on the planet.
What’s behind this battle?
Dogon individuals have typically accused the Fulani of bringing their cattle onto their farms and destroying their crops.
This has traditionally led to pressure and at occasions violence between the teams, however competitors over assets was steadily resolved by negotiation.
However the militant Islamist battle that started in northern Mali in 2012 and unfold to central areas by 2015 introduced extra instability, weapons and a scarcity of presidency management into the area.
The Dogon, who’ve been victims of militant assaults, accuse the Fulani of aiding the jihadists. In the meantime, the Fulani say that the Dogon self-defence teams have been armed by the federal government, and are finishing up atrocities in opposition to them, which is denied by the authorities.
Since 2015, authorities management in Mopti has weakened, that means that individuals don’t really feel they’ll depend on the authorities, the BBC’s Alou Diawara studies from the capital, Bamako.
What’s the Dan Na Ambassagou?
Dan Na Ambassagou, which suggests “hunters who belief in God” within the Dogon language, is an affiliation that was shaped from native self-defence teams.
It was created in 2016 to “defend our group”, in line with members quoted by Human Rights Watch, however got here to prominence final yr.
There have been accusations that it has been concerned in various the assaults on Fulanis final yr, but it surely has denied this.
Likewise, it was accused of being behind Saturday’s assault because the perpetrators have been wearing conventional Dogon looking gear. However Dan Na Ambassagou says the affiliation was not concerned.
“Now we have nothing to do with this bloodbath which we totally condemn,” it stated in an announcement.
“Anybody can put on hunters’ costumes, they’re obtainable within the markets.”
Are there Fulani self-defence teams?
Some group members shaped the Alliance for the Salvation of the Sahel (ASS) in Might final yr to guard Fulanis from armed teams in Mali and Burkina Faso, Human Rights Watch says.
However it isn’t clear what hyperlinks the ASS has with different Fulani village self-defence teams.
The ASS is accused by Dogon militia of being linked to militant Islamist teams within the space, but it surely denies this.
What are the authorities doing?
Along with banning Dan Na Ambassagou, President Ibrahim Boubacar Keita additionally sacked two generals: chief of workers Gen M’Bemba Moussa Keita and chief of land forces Gen Abdoulaye Coulibaly.
In an announcement, the presidency stated that “the safety of the inhabitants stays and can stay solely within the arms of the state”, distancing itself from claims that it has outsourced the struggle in opposition to the jihadists.
“Our forces will… actively disarm any one that shouldn’t be armed,” it added.
Worldwide Legal Courtroom (ICC) prosecutor Fatou Bensouda condemned the assault. She stated it may fall beneath her jurisdiction and that her workplace “will take all vital steps to make sure the investigation and prosecution of those that participated in or in any other case contributed to what seems to be egregious crimes”.
The ICC has been working with the Malian authorities since 2012 on the impression of the jihadist rebellion.